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Verbal Test 14

1) Current data suggest that, although—-states between fear and aggression exist, fear and aggression are as distinct physiologically as they are psychologically.

(A) simultaneous

(B) serious

(C) exceptional

(D) partial

(E) transitional

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    Ans: E

2) Philosophical problems arise when people ask questions that, though very—-, have certain characteristics in common.

(A) relevant

(B) elementary

(C) abstract

(D) diverse

(E) controversial

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    Ans: D

3) Animals that have tasted unpalatable plants tend to—-them afterward on the basis of their most conspicuous features, such as their flowers.

(A) recognize

(B) hoard

(C) trample

(D) retrieve

(E) approach

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    Ans: A

4) Without seeming unworldly, William James appeared wholly removed from the—-of society, the conventionality of academe.

(A) ethos

(B) idealism

(C) romance

(D) paradoxes

(E) commonplaces

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    Ans: E

5) The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager, were—– their few and simple desires.

(A) simultaneous with

(B) commensurate with

(C) substantiated by

(D) circumscribed by

(E) ruined by

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    Ans: B

6) The results of the experiments performed by Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown were—-not only because these results challenged old assumptions but also because they called the—-methodology into question.

(A) provocative.. prevailing

(B) predictable.. contemporary

(C) inconclusive.. traditional

(D) intriguing.. projected

(E) specious.. original

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    Ans: A

7) Despite the—-of many of their colleagues, some scholars have begun to emphasize “pop culture” as a key for—-the myths, hopes, and fears of contemporary society.

(A) antipathy.. entangling

(B) discernment.. evaluating

(C) pedantry.. reinstating

(D) skepticism.. deciphering

(E) enthusiasm.. symbolizing

  • View Answer


    Ans: D

8) Because outlaws were denied—-under medieval law, anyone could raise a hand against them with legal—-.

(A) propriety.. authority

(B) protection.. impunity

(C) collusion.. consent

(D) rights.. collaboration

(E) provisions.. validity

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    Ans: B

9) Physicists rejected the innovative experimental technique because, although it—-some problems, it also produced new—-.

(A) clarified.. data

(B) eased.. interpretations

(C) resolved.. complications

(D) caused.. hypotheses

(E) revealed.. inconsistencies

  • View Answer


    Ans: C

Passage :
Geologists have long known that the Earth’s mantle is heterogeneous, but its spatial arrangement remains unresolved-is the mantle essentially layered or irregularly heterogeneous? The best evidence for the layered mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands, islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle, are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle. Some geologists, however, on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered, but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in “incompatible elements” (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state) percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly, according to the vagaries of the fluids’ path-ways. We believe, perhaps unimaginatively, that this debate can be resolved through further study, and that the underexplored mid-ocean ridge system is the key.

10) Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Current theories regarding the structure of the Earth’s mantle cannot account for new discoveries regarding the composition of mantle xenoliths.

(B) There are conflicting hypotheses about the heterogeneity of the Earth’s mantle because few mantle elements have been thoroughly studied.

(C) Further research is needed to resolve the debate among geologists over the composition of the mid-ocean ridge system.

(D) There is clear-cut disagreement within the geological community over the structure of the Earth’s mantle.

(E) There has recently been a strong and exciting challenge to geologists’ long-standing belief in the heterogeneity of the Earth’s mantle.

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    Ans: D

11) According to the passage, it is believed that oceanic islands are formed from

(A) the same material as mantle xenoliths

(B) the same material as the mid-ocean ridge system

(C) volcanic rocks from the upper mantle

(D) incompatible elements percolating up from the lower mantle

(E) mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle

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    Ans: E

 12) It can be inferred from the passage that the sup-porters of the “layered-mantle” theory believe which of the following?

I. The volcanic rocks on oceanic islands are composed of material derived from the lower part of the mantle.

II. The materials of which volcanic rocks on oceanic islands and midocean ridges are composed are typical of the layers from which they are thought to originate.

III. The differences in composition between volcanic rocks on oceanic islands and the midocean ridges are a result of different concentrations of incompatible elements.

(A) I only

(B) III only

(C) I and II only

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II, and III

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    Ans: C

13) The authors suggest that their proposal for determining the nature of the mantle’s heterogeneity might be considered by many to be

(A) pedestrian

(B) controversial

(C) unrealistic

(D) novel

(E) paradoxical

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    Ans: A

Select in Passage
Yet, in the little time he had, he demonstrated what top class performance can be, and on every front: Political, social, economic, and international. Mr. Vajpayee will forever be saluted for his vision, one that his vanquishers cannot match even in their hour of triumph. Accomplishing so much and with such consummate ease, he will be one tough act to follow. He must know that, as he takes his bow, it is to a standing ovation. For, Mr. Vajpayee did not need electoral victory to serve as the measure of his worth.

14) Which sentence implies that Mr. Vajpayee had lost in the elections?

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    Ans: Vajpayee will … triumph

Passage for Questions from 14 to 16

 Over the past several years there has been a drive for us all to become healthier, eat better more natural food, exercise more and even improve the way we rest. Consumers have been demanding more natural goods, and we are witnessing a swing of “back to nature” in many retail fields. It is with no surprise then that we are seeing companies supplying healthier goods to meet with customers’ demands. The world of bedding and linens has not been exempt from this trend and one can now find many natural fibers replacing the more conventional synthetic beddings. Coverings such as polyester and other synthetically made linens are not as sympathetic to our bodies needs as natural products are. Down, wool, cotton and silk are all examples of natural products seeing resurgence in the bedding market. As manufacturing techniques become increasingly sophisticated the prices of production decreases, making once prohibitively expensive bedding products more accessible to a mass market.

15) Which sentence implies that we were earlier closer to nature than we are now?

  • View Answer


    Ans: The second sentence. (Consumers have been…fields.)

16) People moved to artificial fibers because they were cheaper. Which sentence conveys this?

  • View Answer


    Ans:The seventh sentence. (As manufacturing techniques…market.)

17) In which sentence is the reason for the changeover from synthetics to naturals mentioned?

  • View Answer


    Ans: The fifth sentence. (Coverings such as…are.)

Passage

Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical, reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits. There is a growing, realization that the only effective way to achieve, further reductions in vehicle emissions-short of a massive shift away from the private automobile-is to replace conventional diesel fuel and gasoline with cleaner-burning fuels such as compressed  natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol, or methanol.

                All of these alternatives are carbon- based fuels whose molecules are smaller and simpler than those of gasoline. These molecules burn more cleanly than gasoline, in part because they have fewer, if and , carbon-carbon bonds, and the hydrocarbons they do emit are less likely to generate ozone. The combustion of larger molecules, which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds, involves a more complex series of reactions. These reactions increase the probability of incomplete combustion and are more likely to release uncombusted and photochemically active hydrocarbon compounds into the atmosphere. On the other hand, alternative fuels do have drawbacks. Compressed natural gas would require that vehicles  have a set of heavy fuel tanks-a serious liability in terms of performance and fuel efficiency and liquefied petroleum gas faces fundamental limits on supply.

                Ethanol and methanol, on the other hand, have important advantages over other carbon-based alternative fuels: they have a higher energy content per volume and would require minimal changes in the existing network for distributing motor fuel. Ethanol is commonly used as a gasoline supplement, but it is currently about twice as expensive as methanol, the low cost of which is one of its attractive features. Methanol’s most attractive feature, however, is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone, the most serious urban air pollutant.

                Like any alternative fuel, methanol has its critics, Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol. It is true, for example, that a given volume of methanol provides only about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do; other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. However, since methanol fuelled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fuelled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel. Vehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol makes feasible would still contribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution.

18) The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem

(B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem

(C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem.

(D) discussing a problem and arguing in favour of one solution to it

(E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles blocking that plan.

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    Ans: C

 19) According to the passage, incomplete combustion is more likely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because

(A) the combustion of gasoline releases photo chemically active hydrocarbons

(B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions

(C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure

(D) gasoline is composed of small molecules.

(E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel

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    Ans: B

20) The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution?

(A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels.

(B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline fuelled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful.

(C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by gasoline-fuelled vehicles.

(D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline fuelled vehicles are not the most critical source of urban air pollution.

(E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline fuelled vehicles.

  • View Answer


    Ans: A
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